16. 1 The Cell Cycle
- give examples of somatic cells
- define DNA, chromosome, histone, chromatid, centromere
- be able to draw a chromosome and label all the parts
- What are homologous chromosomes? What is another name for them?
- What are sex chromosomes?
- What is the difference between homologous and sex chromosomes?
- What is the difference between diploid and haploid?
- What is a karyotype? What kind of information can you infer from a karyotype?
- List and describe the stages of the cell cycle
16.2 The Reproduction of Somatic Cells
- identify and describe the phases of mitosis
- What is the purpose/functions of mitosis? (textbook p. 556)
- Be able to label and draw the phases of mitosis on your own.
- What happens during cytokinesis?
- What is the difference in mitosis between plant and animal cells?
16.3 The Formation of Gametes
- What are gametes?
- Identify and describe the phases of meiosis I and II
- What is the purpose of meiosis I and II?
- What is crossing over, non-disjunction (monosomy and trisomy)?
- Describe the process of sperm cell production during spermatogenesis (spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes secondary spermatocytes, spermatids)
- Describe the process of egg production during oogenesis (oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, first polar body, second polar body)
17.1 Laying Foundations: Peas, Patterns and Probabilities
- You need to understand the following terms: monohybrid cross, dominant, recessive, genotype, phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous, dihybrid cross
- Name and explain the law of segregation (mendel's first law)
- Be able to create a monohybrid and dihybrid cross (p-generation, F1-G, F2-G, use a punnet square)
- Name the genotype and phenotype ratio from a cross
- Describe the purpose of a test cross
- Explain what is the difference between incomplete dominance and co-dominance by using an example
- Describe sickle cell anemia.
17.2 Extending Mendel's Laws
- explain what crossing over and linked-genes are
- explain what chromosome mapping and map unit is
- Distinguish between the terms recombinant types and parental types
- Calculate the recombination frequency (know the formula-p. 600)
- Draw a chromosome map showing the linear arrangement of genes on one chromosome
- Explain sex-linked traits (example: eye colour fruit fly, colour blindness in humans)
- Illustrate sex-linked crosses by using a punnet square
- Explain why the formation of a barr body means that human females have only one functioning x chromosome in each somatic cell
- Explain what multiple alleles are
- Illustrate ABO blood type by using a punnet square (p. 606-sample problem)
- Describe what continuous and polygenic traits are (p. 605-607)
17.3 Genetics and Society
- Explain what a pedigree is (understand the symbols that are used in pedigrees)
- What is autosomal inheritance, autosomal dominant/recessive inheritance and sex-linked traits?
- Examine pedigrees and identify the genotypes of each individual
18.1 DNA Structure and Replication
- What was the contribution of Franklin, Watson and Crick?
- Draw and label a DNA double helix (complementary base pairs, antiparallel)
- Explain Chargaff's rule and be able to calculate the proportions of the different bases (see p.627 practice problem)
- Define the terms gene and genome
- Describe the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA
- Describe the process of replication (name all events, enzymes, semi-conservative replication)
18.2 Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression
- Explain the path of gene expression
- Describe what is the genetic code, be able to read the table on page 637, (example: UUU=phenylalanine)
- Describe the purpose and function of transcription and translation (name the start codon and stop codons)
- Name the different types of RNA's and their function (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA) (label a tRNA) (see p.640-table)
18.3 Mutations and Genetic Recombination
- Explain the different types of mutations using an example
- Differentiate between physical and chemical mutagens
- Describe why your mitochondrial DNA is identical to the mitochondrial DNA of your mother rather than your father (p. 647)
- Explain the purpose of genetic engineering and explain the process of restriction endonucleases
- Explain gel electrophoresis (DNA fingerprint), be able to interpret a DNA fingerprint diagram (p. 651-thought lab)
18.4 is not part of the test, but you need to know it for the diploma.
18.4 Genetics and Society
- List and explain the stages of genetic engineering experiments (DNA cleavage-production of recombinant DNA-cloning-screening)
- Explain what DNA microarray is and for what purpose is it used
- List and explain different types of biotechnology products (medical bacteria, transgenic plants, clones and transgenic animals)
- Explain how genetic disorders can be diagnosed and treated (prenatal diagnosis, gentic screening, gene therapy)