Use the Key book and Quest A+ to study for the test.
Chapter 12: Sensory Reception
- Explain the difference between sensory reception, sensation and perception.
- What is sensory adaptation (use an example to describe it)?
- Distinguish among the major sensory receptors (photo-, mechano-, chemoreceptors) in the human body.
Photoreception -The Human Eye (p.410-418)
- Describe the principal structure and function of the human eye
- Describe several eye disorders and treatments (glaucoma,Astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia, cataract).
- Compare adaptation with accomodation.
- How does the lens focuses the light (distant object, nearby object)
- Compare and contrast the functions and location of rods and cones.
- What is the cause of red-green colour-blindness?
- How do photorecpetors relay visual information to the brain?
- How does visual information get from the retina to the brain? List the main steps in this process.
Mechanoreception - The Human Ear (p.419-424)
- Describe the structures and functions of the human ear (outer, middle and inner ear)
- Describe the role of the Eustachian tube
- Describe the structure and function of the organ of Corti (basilar membrane, hair cells, stereocilia, tectorial membrane, high and low frequency)
- Explain how the structures of the inner ear allow for rotational equilibrium (semicircular canals) and gravitational equilibrium (vestibule).
- Describe what is the function of proprioceptors
- Explain the difference between nerve deafness and conduction deafness
Mechanoreception- Touch (p. 427)
- List the different types of stimuli that sensory receptors in skin can detect
- Describe where are the greatest concentration of touch receptors in the body
- Explain what are nociceptors
- Explain the function of painkillers such as ibuprofen and Aspirin
Chemoreception- Taste and Smell (p.425-426)
- Describe the structure of the human tongue (taste buds, papillae, taste cells)
- Describe how taste buds detect taste
- Name the four basic tastes
- Describe how olfactory cells detect odours
- Describe why the sense of smell is closely linked to the sense of smell (hint: can you taste food when you have a cold)
Chapter 13: The Endocrine System (p.436-459)
- identify the principal endocrine glands in the human body and the hormones they secrete (be able to label diagram) (p.436-437)
- define the term hormone (p.436)
- Describe how hormones action on target cells (p.439)
- Compare lipid-soluble and water-soluble hormones (name examples for each group), explain how do they interact with their target cells (p.440)
- Explain what is a negative feedback mechanism (p.441)
- Explain what are tropic hormones (p.441)
The Pituitary Gland
- Describe the structure and function of the pituitary gland (posterior/anterior pituitary).
- Describe who releases hGH (Human Growth Hormone) and list effects of hGH on the body
- Describe what is gigantism, dwarfism and acromegaly (p.445-446)
The Thyroid Gland
- Explain where the thyroid gland is located in the body and name the hormone (thyroxine) that is released
- Describe function of thyroid gland
- Explain what is hypothyroidism and cretinism, list some symptoms of hypothyroidism
- Explain what is hyperthyroidism, Grave's disease, goitre (p.448-449)
- Describe how thyroxine is released (negative feedback loop)
The Adrenal Gland (p.451-454)
- Explain where are the adrenal glands located and what is their function
- Describe the function of the adrenal medulla (What hormones are released? What do they regulate?)
- Describe the function of the adrenal cortex (What hormones are released? What do they regulate?)
- Describe the function of cortisol and aldosterone
Hormonal Regulation of Blood Sugar (p.456-459)
- Describe structure and function of pancreas (islet of Langerhans, beta cells, alpha cells)
- Describe the role of insulin and glucagon
- Explain what is diabetes mellitus
- List short and long term effects of hyperglycemia (=high blood sugar)
- Name and compare the two types of diabetes mellitus (type 1 and 2)